Mtaa and COVID-19

Informal settlements are often missing from the geographic and statistical representation of countries. Nairobi’s informal settlements are no exception. Very little information is available on the quality and quantity of public institutions and amenities, public services, or on the population itself living in the areas. They are often not even represented on official maps.

This invisibility became even more pronounced with the onset of Covid-19 crisis when movement in and around Nairobi, and Kenya, was significantly limited. This lack of free movement introduced yet another problem: due to the travel restrictions, the information flow from these areas also got restricted to an extent.

Social media, such as WhatsApp, Facebook, and Twitter filled in the gap of missing information but, while these tools do a great job of enabling easier public sharing, the information itself remains scattered through the interest groups. If you’re not a part of the group, you simply miss out.

In order to understand what our friends and co-workers, their families, and communities are going through, we needed to consolidate all the information in one spot in an easy, accessible way.

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Mtaa is an application we developed to conduct a quick scan of the area where we plan to work. Users send texts, together with a location and an “emotion” attached to the location. Everyone is free to send whatever message they wish. The messages are open, without censorship or rules of what should be posted. We keep it this way because at the moment we rely on trusted sources for information and we don’t see the need to censor anything. We love such qualitative data because we love stories and stories of what is going on in informal settlements are often lacking.

Then, the pandemic hit.

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As a company focused on community data collection, we had to find a way to support our colleagues, enable safe data collection, and still center community experiences.

Mtaa enabled us to do so.

Our friends utilize the platform to send messages – ​ safely from their homes – about experiences they and their communities are facing. These friends are trusted reporters, many of whom have worked with or been trained by us before, sharing experiences of the neighborhoods that are otherwise often missing from representation.

Gerry sending a message

Currently, they’ve sent about 500 messages from Mathare, Kibera, Kariobangi, Kawangware, City Centre, Ngong Road, Mukuru, and Umoja neighborhoods in Nairobi. The messages range from day-to-day interactions, reports of extreme kindness and sacrifice, small acts of daily life like painting graffiti and making of music videos, to talking about crime and lack of essential services, such as access to water and food.

Water situation is very dire here. We have gone so long without water services and where one gets some, the community scrambles and struggles with high cost and long queues in order to access the commodity.

Thievery activities taking place due to lack of finaces and very limited job opportunities. Especially now it is really bad along the roads.

Hii Covid imekuja sana waaaaah!!!

Woke up, all good! Good morning Mlango!

We must emphasize that no one is asked to, nor needs to, go and collect data outside the safety of their homes. The only rule is that they send whatever they want whenever they want it: rumors, feelings, and other relevant messages as and when they see fit.

We are now working on various analyses and visualizations of data to identify hot-spots, priority areas, and main issues in each community based on this incoming information. One of the visualizations – an interactive map of messages received and their locations – can be seen below. Now, our job is to analyze and share the information with relevant actors providing services on the ground. In the end, the goal is to make this information useful.

Geolocated messages from Mlango Kubwa, Mathare

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Household Survey

This is part of a series on the Industrial Training of Students on Zanzibar by Spatial Collective. You can read parts one, two, three, four, five, and six here.

One of the topics covered during the training was on using mobile phones to collect data on households. The goal was to introduce the students to mobile data collection and to teach them how to interact with community members while conducting a survey.

KOBO software was used for data collection and some of the data collected were:

  • building type, material, structure, roof, building levels, condition, and age
  • how many people – adults and children – live in the household
  • does the household have a drainage connection
  • does the household have a sanitation connection
  • does the household have an electricity
  • does the household have a water connection
  • how does the household get rid of the waste
  • has the community experienced flooding recently
  • has the household experience flooding recently
  • what were the main causes of flooding

The survey was carried out in one of the most flood-affected areas of Zanzibar Urban West. A few visualizations of the 2,300 households surveyed are displayed below.

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Mapping Drainage

This is part of a series on the Industrial Training of Students on Zanzibar by Spatial Collective. You can read parts one, two, three, four, and five here.

As mentioned in previous blog posts, at the start of the training, the students met with the stakeholders from the civil society, government and the private sector to determine what are their key data needs. During these meetings, the following themes continuously came up in the conversation: creating a base map, mapping roads and drainage, and conducting a household survey in the Zanzibar City’s Urban West.

Drainage mapping was likely the most complicated task performed during the training. This is because the building materials, shapes, and sizes of drainage lines and accompanied infrastructure often change rapidly as they make their way downstream towards the sea. For example, a concrete, rectangular, closed drainage of 1-meter in width and depth can suddenly transition into an open, informal, 25 cm deep ditch made of dirt.

To make sure everybody collects the same data, in the same way, we set up precise data collection protocols and spent a lot of time practicing with the students in the field.

We decided to collect the following data and attributes on drainage infrastructure:

  • Type of drainage: [ditch, drain, undergroun]
  • If underground: [culvert]; Profile: [round, boxed]
  • Built from the material: [concrete, steel, asphalt, sand, plants, trees, gravel, dirt]
  • If covered, by material: [concrete, grating, metal, wood]
  • If blockage: [dirt, concrete, rubish or solid waste, grass or plants[
  • Width: [top, bottom]
  • Depth
  • Profile: [open rectangular, tabulated, trapezoid, elliptical, trapezoid eliptical]
  • Infrastructure: manholes, drainage outlets, and inlets, bridges, etc.

In less than two weeks, the students collected about 35 kilometers of drainage lines and more than 650 drainage related points of interest. A map and the list of some of the data collected can be found below.

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Half a million buildings mapped

This is part of a series on the Industrial Training of Students on Zanzibar by Spatial Collective. You can read parts one, two, three, and four here.

Building upon previous efforts (read here and here), the State University of Zanzibar students finalized digitization of buildings on the Zanzibar Archipelago (Unguja and Pemba Islands).

Fifty students participated in the digitization effort. They added about 100,000 buildings to the pre-existing dataset of almost 400,000 buildings. The entire dataset was re-checked for errors and building reference numbers were assigned following the nomenclature put forth by the Zanzibar’s Commission for Lands.

Finally, once the mapping was complete, Spatial Collective secured an agreement with the Commission for Lands, who is the rightful owner of the data, to release the buildings and make them available in OpenStreetMap.

Below is an image of Unguja and Pemba Islands presented only through buildings.

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Creating a Base Map of Zanzibar

This is part of a series on the Industrial Training of Students on Zanzibar by Spatial Collective. You can read part one, two and three here.

Geo-services are becoming an essential part of the fabric of society and geographical information is now interwoven with many aspects of life. Key to that service is accurate, up to date, extensive base map.

Recent laudable efforts to create crowd-sourced open data on Zanzibar have shown that the quality of the data produced by the students and others, using innovative tools and methods, can achieve the quality standards required to fulfill the essential geo-data needs on the Islands.

The goal of creating a base map of Zanzibar Urban West was to teach the students about OpenStreetMap, open-source software, GPS and mobile data collection, and other technical aspects of mapping, data collection, and open data.

During this effort, the students mapped 42 shehias and added almost 15,000 points of interest, 100,000 buildings, and more than 200 kilometers of roads to the base map of Zanzibar City Urban West. An excerpt of the data is displayed below.

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Zanzibar Industrial Training Themes

Between August and October, we carried out the Resilience Academy Industrial Training during which we taught 50 students from the State University of Zanzibar on community mapping. The project was supported by the World Bank’s Open Cities Initiative and was also a part of the larger Tanzania Resilience Academy Initiative that targeted four Universities across Tanzania.

At the start of the exercise in August, the students met with the stakeholders from the civil society, government and the private sector to determine what are their key data needs. During the workshop, several themes continuously came up in the conversations:

  • A need for a base map of Zanzibar Urban West
  • A need for the road network of Zanzibar Urban West
  • A need for a drainage map of Zanzibar Urban West
  • A household survey of one of the most flood-affected areas in Zanzibar Urban West

Another goal was to use the Industrial Training to complete the digitization of Pemba Island, finalizing the mapping of buildings on the entire Archipelago in the process.

The training commenced on August 20 during which the students learned about project design, budget allocation, equipment set-up, basically, all the nitty-gritty of how to carry out an independent mapping of communities based on the stakeholders’ needs.

The specific topics covered were:

  • How to design a mapping project
  • How to conduct GPS data collection
  • Introduction to OpenStreetMap
  • How to map drainage
  • How to digitize drone imagery using QuantumGIS
  • How to use mobile phones for data collection
  • How to set up a household survey using KOBO software

The students then used this newly acquired knowledge to collect approximately 15,000 GPS points of interest, 35 kilometers of drainage lines, 200 kilometers of roads, digitized about 100,000 buildings on Pemba Island, gathered 2,000 household surveys and hundreds of public opinions.

In the next blog posts, we’ll explore each individual topic in detail.

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Summary of the work completed so far on Zanzibar

In June, we signed the contract for the work on Tanzania Resilience Academy. Shortly after that, on June 16, we visited Zanzibar where we met the Resilience Academy team, reviewed the venue and equipment, discussed the plans for the training, and organized logistics for our team.

In July, we prepared a Curriculum for the Industrial Training and wrote the Inception Report. We again visited Zanzibar on July 18 to review the documents with the team on Zanzibar and worked out the logistics for the training.

After that, the team took a short summer break for two weeks but early by August, we were back in the office. We purchased all the necessary equipment and Justus and I relocated to Zanzibar for at least a couple of months.

The Industrial Training started on August 20. Approximately 50 students were introduced to mapping theory and best practices during the first week of training, and on Thursday, August 22, we organized a stakeholder meeting to determine the mapping themes and the scope of the mapping exercise.

After the initial week of theory, the students spent the last three weeks in the field collecting data and updating OpenStreetMap of the Zanzibar Urban West. By the end of week four, we will have mapped (collect information on basic public amenities) almost 40 shehias (wards) in the city.

The work continues…

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Zanzibar Resilience Academy

Since 2017, we spent many months on Zanzibar working with the government and other stakeholders on data collection activities. The main focus of these activities was to utilize the rectified drone imagery provided by the Zanzibar Mapping Initiative and generate datasets critical to disaster risk management.

Between May 2017 and March 2018, the first phase of the project called Digitizing the Outputs of the Zanzibar Mapping Initiative was implemented. The main landmarks of this phase include establishing a digitization laboratory at the Commission for Lands (COLA); determining digitization and quality control standards; training 30 COLA staff and State University students in digitization; altogether, approximately 220,000 buildings were digitized, reviewed and cleaned with building reference numbers assigned to each building.

Then, between July 2018 and February 2019, the second phase called Open Cities Africa was carried out. This project built on the first by adding 180,000 buildings to the map and implementing a GPS and household survey in the Zanzibar City’s center. Finally, several maps were produced, including an interactive map on urban resilience.

In mid-2019, we are building on these two initiatives through the Resilience Academy’s Industrial Training. This project is a part of the larger Tanzania Resilience Academy Initiative that targets four Universities across Tanzania. The  Zanzibar program will teach 50 students from the State University all the nitty-gritty of community mapping, from project design, budget allocation, equipment set-up, to carrying out independent mapping of communities based on the stakeholders’ needs.

Specifically, this assignment will:

  1. Provide a good working environment for emerging data and technological communities on Zanzibar, with the focus on University students;

  2. Design and implement mapping of Zanzibar City and create an openly licensed dataset;

  3. Ensure all data collected is collected to an agreed quality standard;

  4. Build a cadre of students to implement community mapping; and

  5. Produce maps and datasets.

The Resilience Academy training on Zanzibar began on the 20th of August 2019 and will continue for the next 8 weeks, so many more blog posts coming soon.

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User Experience Testing of Mobile Applications for Cadastral Surveys

Following our previous blog post titled Technical Testing of Mobile Applications for Cadastral Surveys, we continue our look back at the work we did a while ago on evaluating mobile tools/apps aimed at cadastral surveys and land/property mapping. In this blog post, we explain the tool we developed for user experience testing of mobile applications.

The user experience testing of application touched on evaluating the experience of users while operating selected mobile applications during fieldwork. Indicators such as accessibility, flow, functionality, information architecture, consistency, and satisfaction were developed during the user experience workshop in Nairobi and then tested in the field, in Taita Hills.

Below is a breakdown of the tool for testing the user experience criteria and rationale:

1. Accessibility: Is it clear where to go to in the application to achieve different tasks? Is it obvious, which buttons to press and which not to press?

The application should be accessible through clear language and functionality so that the user can intuitively accomplish relevant tasks without confusion.

2. Flow: Is the path from start to finishing clear?

The process of accomplishing a task should be as simple as possible from start to finish. The user should be able to know at what step of the process he/she is, what the next step is, and how to track back if necessary.

3. Functionality: Does the application load quickly? Are there any dead links or ‘glitches’?

Functionality touches mainly on the technical features of mobile phones and its interaction with the application. In developing countries, the majority of the people own medium- to low-end smartphones and, as such, the mobile application should be built in a way that these mobile phones can sustain it.

4. Information Architecture: Does the application have good navigation? Are the icons understandable? Is labeling consistent across the application?

The application should have clear and simple navigation, good visual cues, and well-considered iconography that aids the user through different tasks.

5. Consistency: Is the application consistent throughout in order for the user to perform additional tasks without problems?

The application should have a common convention that requires a short learning curve in case new tasks are necessary. Multiple conventions can be disorienting and frustrating for a user with limited technical capacity.

6. Satisfaction: Is it satisfactory to use the applications? Did the application sufficiently fulfill the intended task?

Was the work accomplished with minimum user experience friction and in a satisfactory manner?

These are the user-experience specifications we developed and tested in the field. The next blog post will look at the field testing itself.

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Technical Testing of Mobile Applications for Cadastral Surveys

Following our previous blog post titled Introduction to User Experience Testing of Mobile Applications for Cadastral Surveys, we continue our look back at the work we did a while ago on evaluating mobile tools/apps aimed at cadastral surveys and land/property mapping. In this blog post, we explain the tool we developed for technical testing of mobile applications.

Through user experience workshops, we designed an evaluation tool that can be used to scrutinize mobile applications against the highest professional standards and legal thresholds. The evaluation tool was divided into two parts: the technical testing and user experience testing.

The technical specifications were developed during the user experience workshops in Nairobi and tested under the real conditions in Taita Hills. Technical testing of applications touched on evaluating the technical capabilities of mobile applications, such as whether they allow for the capture of photos, calculation of land areas, whether they allow for flexible fields, etc., and other data that is most necessary in parcel mapping and land documentation.

Below are the minimal technical specifications that each tool should have to ensure a successful data collection process on parcels/land:

1. Contact: the ability to collect multiple contact details, such as name, ID, date and other custom fields.

The legal process, starting at the land registrar and across the board, requires the collection of identity documents and contact details of the applicant, information on the owner or multiple owners, information on the certified surveyor conducting the survey, and in case of land disputes, disputing parties.

2. Photo: the ability to take and upload photos into the system easily.

Taking a photo of the parcel or boundary points is essential for boundaries, especially for general boundaries in rural areas. Additionally, photo feature can be used to collect pictures of owners, neighbors, their IDs, signed documents, disputed areas, etc.

3. Flexible Fields: the ability to create new fields on the go.

Flexible Fields are one of the most important features for the usefulness of the application. There are several use cases for Flexible Fields:

* A plot can have more than one owner, or each plot can have a unique number of owners, neighbors, etc. Flexible Fields should allow the user to add as many fields as necessary.

* A boundary point or a boundary itself can be unique (maybe there is a dispute on the boundary or a surveyor needs to indicate an offset point). Flexible Fields should allow additional information to be attached on a feature.

* Different government bodies require different information. Depending on the purpose of the survey and the targeted government body, the user should be able to create their own form/fields based on the template form from the respective authority. For example, if the user needs to satisfy information for the Registrar of Lands or the Survey of Kenya, they should be able to use the template from the respective body as a guide to creating their own custom fields. This way it is ensured that relevant information is collected each time.

4. Preview/Review: the ability to allow for previewing of results.

Due to the amount of information gathered at each field visit a Preview/Review feature should be necessary.

5. Editing: the ability to allow for editing of information after review.

This feature is linked to the Preview/Review feature and it enables for correction of errors or to add more data if necessary. Given the legal sensitivity of the information gathered, the user should be able to correct mistakes, such as wrong spelling of names, or add additional data.

6. Map or aerial imagery integration: the ability to view, plot, edit, and review coordinates on the map.

A map or aerial imagery interface enables visual interpretation of the parcel in question. For example, aerial imagery can support mapping efforts through visual image identification of the parcel’s boundary points, features, amenities, etc. Locations of collected boundary points can be verified with the help of the imagery and, if necessary, manually moved to its proper location. Map integration enables for greater accuracy of mapping results.

7. Sharing: the ability to easily share information with other users.

One of the main advantages if ICTs is its ability to make information more transparent. In some instances, the officials representing a community can communicate on the process, progress, findings, etc. with each member of the community. Sharing of information also allows for collective custody of data, reducing the incidences of disputes and corruption. Sharing can promote openness, which in turn can lead to better relationships between neighbors.

8. Storage: the ability to save files both locally and on the cloud.

Most land administration documents in Kenya are recorded on and stored in paper format. This makes them vulnerable to risk, loss or damage, and susceptible to manipulation and fraud. Digitally stored data in the cloud can mitigate the above-mentioned risks.

9. Acreage: the ability to calculate the size of the area based on boundary points.

The parcel area size is one of the most sought for information by the landowners. Most landowners know the approximate size of their parcels. This information was often passed on to them through inheritance; however, a proper survey of land has rarely been carried out. The application should enable users to calculate area size based on the mapped boundary coordinates of the parcel (in Kenya acreage is the unit of reference for land ownership).

10. Remarks: the ability to add additional text.

Aside from these specific technical considerations, the user should have an opportunity to record any other observation that he or she deems necessary.

These are the technical specifications we developed and tested in the field. The next blog post will look at the user experience specifications.

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